April 18, 2016
Global meat market overview
by Derrell S. Peel, Oklahoma State University Extension livestock marketing specialist
The Foreign Agricultural Service of USDA recently released the latest Livestock and Poultry: World Markets and Trade publication. This provides an opportunity to review meat production, consumption and trade among major countries. Pork production is the number one meat with 2016 production forecast at 109.3 million metric tons (MMT), 42 percent of global meat production. Broiler meat ranks second with 2016 production forecast at 89.7 MMT, 34 percent of the global meat total. Beef production is forecast at 59.0 MMT in 2016, 23 percent of total meat production. Total meat production in 2016 is forecast to increase slightly year over year with a 1.0 percent increase in beef and a 1.1 percent increase in broiler production offsetting a 0.9 percent decrease in world pork production. Total meat exports are forecast to increase 3.6 percent with pork exports up 5.7 percent; broiler exports up 4.7 percent; and beef exports up 0.8 percent.
China is by far the largest pork producer and consumer with 2016 production forecast at 53.5 MMT, 49 percent of total global pork production. The European Union is second (21 percent) with the U.S. third in pork production (10 percent) with Brazil and Russia rounding out the top five pork producing countries. The same countries are the top five pork consuming countries with Russia in fourth place, slightly ahead of Brazil. The European Union is the largest pork exporting country, slightly ahead of the U.S., followed by Canada, Brazil and China in the top five. Total pork exports represent 7 percent of total world pork production. Japan is the largest pork importing country, slightly ahead of China in second place and Mexico in third followed by South Korea and the U.S.
The U.S. at is forecast in 2016 to be the largest broiler producer at 18.8 MMT (21 percent of world total), followed by Brazil (15 percent), China (14 percent), the European Union (12 percent), and India (5 percent). The same five countries are the top broiler consuming nations in the following order: U.S., China, European Union, Brazil and India. Brazil is the largest broiler exporter, followed by the U.S., the European Union, Thailand and China. Total exports among major broiler countries represent 12 percent of total production. The five largest broiler importing countries are Japan, Saudi Arabia, Mexico, European Union and Iraq.
In the 2016 forecast, the U.S. is the largest beef producing country at 11.3 MMT (19 percent of the global total), followed by Brazil (16 percent), the European Union (13 percent), China (12 percent) and India (7 percent). India includes meat from water buffalo (carabeef). The U.S. is also the largest beef consuming nation, followed by Brazil, the European Union, China and Argentina. For the third consecutive year, India is forecast to be the largest beef exporter in 2016 with Brazil, Australia, the U.S. and New Zealand rounding out the top five beef exporters. Total beef exports represent 16 percent of total production. The U.S. is the largest beef importer, followed by rapidly growing beef imports in China. Japan, Russia and South Korea are the remaining top five beef importers.
India has the largest cattle inventory, forecast at 302.6 million head in 2016 followed by Brazil (219.2 million head), China (100.3 million head), the U.S. (92 million head) and the European Union (88.8 million head).
Using artificial insemination in very warm weather
by Glenn Selk, Oklahoma State University Emeritus Extension animal scientist
As the breeding season for spring calving herds is getting closer, understanding heat stress in cattle takes on increased importance. Producers that choose to synchronize and then artificially inseminate replacement heifers or adult cows will begin the process in the next few weeks. If the hot weather arrives during the AI breeding season, some management and breeding alterations may be helpful.
For years, producers that bred artificially upon detected standing estrus (heat), would wait 12 hours before breeding the female in heat. If she was first observed in standing heat in the morning she would be inseminated that evening. If she was first observed in standing heat in the evening she would be inseminated the following morning. (This was called the AM/PM rule of artificial insemination.) More recent extensive research with dairy cattle has indicated that there is no significant advantage to the AM/PM rule. Similar pregnancy rates have resulted from inseminating in the morning only compared to following the AM/PM rule. Plus new research at Oklahoma State University on the internal temperature of heat stressed cattle adds even more concern about handling and inseminating cattle in the evening.
Research with rumen temperature boluses has shown that the core body temperature of beef cows peaks at 2 to 5 hours after the highest daytime temperature (Pye, Boehmer, and Wettemann. 2011 ASAS Midwest Abstracts Page 104; Abstract 285). On a hot spring/summer day the highest daytime temperature is often late afternoon. Therefore the peak body temperature of cattle will occur at 6 PM to 11 PM. Elevated core body temperatures have been implicated from other research in reduced pregnancy rates in heat stressed cattle.
Inseminating all cattle in the morning hours would avoid the heat stress of evening breeding. Some would be bred at first standing heat, others would be bred at the conventional 12 hours after standing heat. If timed AI is the method of choice, cattle working (especially the actual insemination) should be scheduled for the morning hours.
“Cow/calf Corner” is a weekly newsletter edited by Dr. Glenn Selk, Extension cattle specialist emeritus at Oklahoma State University with contributions from additional OSU Extension specialists.