June 12, 2017
2017 meat production estimates trimmed
by Derrell S. Peel, Oklahoma State University Extension livestock marketing specialist
U.S. meat production is growing more slowly than previously expected. Many analysts have trimmed their estimates and USDA, in the latest monthly estimates, reduced forecasts for 2017 beef, pork and poultry production from earlier levels. Total red meat and poultry production is expected to total near 100 billion pounds, a new record level. However, slower growth in meat production, combined with improving trade balances for all meats, is holding meat consumption estimates close to year ago levels. Per capita retail beef consumption is projected to increase less than one percent while pork and broiler consumption may be slightly lower year over year.
2017 broiler production is currently projected to increase 2.0 percent over 2016 levels. However, a projected 7.5 to 8 percent year over year increase in broiler exports will hold net production increases to less than one percent from the perspective of the domestic market. April broiler exports were down 4.5 percent but year to date broiler export totals are up 5.4 percent year over year. Mexico is a key broiler export market and will likely be a key to reaching annual export projections. Retail broiler consumption in 2017 is projected at 89.3 pounds per capita, down fractionally from the 2016 level of 89.6 pounds.
Expansion continues in the pork industry with pork production projected to increase nearly 3 percent in 2017 compared to one year ago. Lower hog carcass weights in recent weeks have moderated year over year production growth. Growing pork exports (projected up 7 percent year over year) combined with slightly less pork imports is projected to hold net pork production increases to less than one percent in 2017. Year to date pork exports are up 14.6 percent from year ago levels. Retail per capita pork consumption is projected at 49.8 pounds in 2017 compared to the 50.0 pounds in 2016.
Beef production is currently projected to increase 3.4 percent year over year. Cattle slaughter for the year to date is still running about 6 percent higher year over year but slaughter rates for most classes of cattle have moderated recently and are expected to have smaller year over year increases in the second half of 2017. Sharply lower carcass weights so far this year have held year to date beef production increases to roughly 4 percent over year earlier levels. Beef carcass weights appear to have bottomed seasonally but may remain below year ago levels for much of the remainder of the year. Beef exports are projected to increase about 7 percent year over year while beef imports are projected to decrease about 12 percent. So far this year beef exports are up 20.2 percent year over year while beef imports are down 10.9 percent. This modifies the projected production increase to a net year over year increase of just over one percent. Per capita retail beef consumption is projected to increase less than one percent to 55.9 pounds compared to 55.5 pounds in 2016.
Total 2017 red meat and poultry consumption (including veal, lamb, other poultry and turkey) is projected at 214.3 pounds per capita, up fractionally year over year and the highest level since 2008. Total meat production is projected to increase 2.9 percent year over year but increased meat exports and reduced meat imports is holding net production increases to about one percent higher than last year. Trade of each of the meats is important to all the meats to moderate domestic meat supplies and price pressure in the domestic market.
Can storage of vaccine affect its efficacy?
by Gant Mourer, Beef Value Enhancement specialist, Oklahoma State University
Respiratory disease in cattle — also known as BRD, shipping fever, or pneumonia — may cost the U.S. cattle industry over $2 billion annually (Powell 2013). Management techniques can offset much of this cost and having a good vaccination program can maintain the health of a calf all the way through the production system. A vaccine can cost over $3.00 a head, and if not stored properly that vaccine can be rendered in effective. Producers cannot afford to overlook the importance of how they store vaccine and handle it prior to injection.
Biological products should be stored under refrigeration at 35 to 45⁰F unless the nature of the product makes storing at a different temperature advisable (APHIS 2007). If vaccines are not stored within this temperature range, efficacy to the calf can and will be reduced. Killed vaccines are especially susceptible to freezing temperatures. Freezing a killed vaccine will alter the adjuvant or delivery system of a killed vaccine. This, in turn, negatively affects the immune response to the antigen in the vaccine. Modified live viruses (MLV) are more stable but can be in-activated if they are repeatedly cycled above or below the required temperature range (Gunn et al, 2013). Also, once activated by mixing, MLV’s effective life will be reduced to 1-2 hours and need to be maintained at the 35⁰ to 45⁰ F. This can be accomplished by only mixing the doses that you will use at that time and use a cooler to maintain temperature while working cattle.
Researchers from the University of Arkansas and Idaho analyzed the consistency of temperatures for different types, ages and locations of refrigerators over a 48 hour period. They found that only 26.7% and 34.0% of refrigerators were within the acceptable temperature limit 95% of the time, respectfully. Refrigerator location can also effect temperature. Refrigerators located in barns (35.6 ⁰F) were colder than in mud rooms (41.72 ⁰F) and kitchens (40.82 ⁰F). (Troxel and Barham 2009). Temperature within a 24 hour period can also be highly variable for individual refrigerators. Troxel and Barham (2009) demonstrated some refrigerators may take up to 8 hours to cool down to the 45⁰F required or temperature can drop below freezing and range from 28.4⁰F to 44.6⁰F, while others will remain too cold varying from 24.8⁰F to 35.6⁰F over that period of time.
Producers need to be aware of these variations in temperature so they are able to adjust refrigerator temperature as needed. Thermostats can also be very variable from unit to unit, so keeping a thermometer inside works well to monitor and to make adjustments as need. Simple indoor-outdoor thermometers work well to achieve this goal. The outdoor unit can be placed in the refrigerator while the LCD display can be hung with a magnet on the door. This allows temperature to be monitored without opening the door and many models will record the high and the low temperature in a 24 hour period so producers can adjust accordingly.
How a producer handles vaccine outside of the refrigerator is important as well. Coolers can easily be modified for syringes and are important to maintaining vaccine efficiency chute side. Using a 1 ½’ PVC pipe or sink tail piece purchased at any hardware store and a 1 ½’ hole saw, inserts can placed through the cooler and work well to keep syringes cool and out of light while in use. Either ice or freezer packs can be used as a coolant to maintain temperature for several hours depending on outside ambient temperature. Make sure that enough coolant is used to maintain temperature while working cattle and extra ice may be needed if working cattle all day or during warm days. It may also take up to an hour for the cooler to reach the needed 45⁰F, so producers may need to plan ahead prior to processing cattle. Detailed instruction on the construction of a chute side vaccine cooler is available in Oklahoma State University Fact Sheet ANSI-3300 “ Chute Side Vaccine Cooler”.
These are a few simple suggestions that can help ranchers get the full value of the vaccine that they purchase. More importantly, positively affect the health of their herd, decrease sickness, and increase profit.
Summertime water requirements for the cow herd
by Glenn Selk, Oklahoma State University Emeritus Extension animal scientist
During hot summer months, the water needed for a cow herd often determines several other management decisions. To best assess the adequacy of water quantities in surface water or from wells or “rural water” supplies, it first is necessary to have an idea of the amount needed for cattle of different sizes and stages of production that you may have during the summer on the ranch.
A University of Georgia publication (Rossi and Pence, revised by Dyer, 2012) lists the estimated water requirements for cattle in different production stages if the daily high temperature is 90 degrees F. They suggest that the amount of water required can be estimated by the production stage and the weight of the cattle. For instance, a lactating cow needs 2 gallons of water per 100 pounds of body weight. A non-lactating cow or bull needs just 1 gallon of water per 100 pounds of body weight. If you are estimating water needs for your cattle, be honest about the weight of the cows in the herd. Many cows today weigh 1200 pounds or more (some a lot more). Therefore expect that most spring calving cows will need at least 24 gallons per day for themselves and another 5 to 10 gallons of water for their calf. Also recognize that some summer days in Oklahoma get even hotter than the 90 degrees used in the Georgia paper. On days with extreme heat, expect the water usage to go up even further.
As fall-calving herds begin weaning the fall-born calves, producers must pay especially close attention to the water needs of the cattle. Fence-line weaning is a popular method to reduce stress on the calves during the weaning process. Fence-line weaning encourages both the cows and the calves to be congregated in a common area with a good fence between them. This means that adequate water must be available on both sides of the fence. Water tanks or troughs must be low enough for the newly weaned calves to reach easily during these hot summer days. Plan the water needs carefully before weaning in warm (hot) weather.
Cow-Calf Corner is a weekly newsletter from the Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service.